RNA category is based on mRNA expression levels in the analyzed samples (RNA assay description). The categories include: tissue/cell line enriched, group enriched, tissue/cell line enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected. RNA category is calculated separately for The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data from cancer tissues and internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) data from normal tissues and cell lines.
Protein evidence scores are generated from several independent sources and are classified as evidence at i) protein level, ii) transcript level, iii) no evidence, or iv) not available.
Evidence at protein level
A summary of the overall protein expression pattern across the analyzed normal tissues. The summary is based on knowledge-based annotation.
"Estimation of protein expression could not be performed. View primary data." is shown for genes analyzed with a knowledge-based approach where available RNA-seq and gene/protein characterization data has been evaluated as not sufficient in combination with immunohistochemistry data to yield a reliable estimation of the protein expression profile.
Cytoplasmic expression in several tissues, most abundant in subsets of immune cells.
Data reliability descriptioni
Standardized explanatory sentences with additional information required for full understanding of the knowledge-based expression profile.
Antibody staining mainly consistent with RNA expression data.
Reliability score (score description), divided into Supported, Approved, or Uncertain, is evaluated in normal tissues and based on consistency between the staining pattern of one antibody or several antibodies with RNA-seq data and available gene/protein characterization data.
Below is an overview of RNA and protein expression data generated in the Human Protein Atlas project. Analyzed tissues are divided into color-coded groups according to which functional features they have in common. For each group, a list of included tissues is accessed by clicking on group name, group symbol, RNA bar, or protein bar. Subsequent selection of a particular tissue in this list links to the image data page. Images of selected tissues give a visual summary of the protein expression profile furthest to the right. The gray human body provides links to a histology dictionary when clicking on any part of the figure.
RNA expression (TPM)i
RNA-seq results generated in HPA are reported as number of transcripts per million (TPM). Each bar represents the highest expression score found in a particular group of tissues. The assay is described more in detail in Assays & Annotation.
Protein expression (score)i
Each bar represents the highest expression score found in a particular group of tissues. Protein expression scores are based on a best estimate of the "true" protein expression from a knowledge-based annotation, described more in detail under Assays & annotation. For genes where more than one antibody has been used, a collective score is set displaying the estimated true protein expression.
Protein expression data is shown for each of the 44 tissues. The color-coding is based on tissues with functional features in common. Mouse-over function shows protein score for analyzed cell types found in a selected tissue. To access image data click on tissue name or bar. Annotation of protein expression is described in detail in Assays & annotation.
For genes with available protein data for which a knowledge-based annotation gave inconclusive results, no protein expression data is displayed in the protein expression data overview, however, all immunohistochemical images are still available and the annotation data can be found under Primary data.
RNA EXPRESSION OVERVIEWi
RNA expression overview shows RNA-data from three different sources: Internally generated Human Protein Atlas (HPA) RNA-seq data, RNA-seq data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and CAGE data from FANTOM5 project. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar.
HPA dataset RNA-seq tissue data is reported as mean TPM (transcripts per million), corresponding to mean values of the different individual samples from each tissue. Color-coding is based on tissue groups, each consisting of tissues with functional features in common. To access sample data, click on tissue name or bar. The RNA-seq assay is described in detail in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category HPA HPA RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on mRNA expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
RNA tissue category: Mixed
GTEx dataset RNA-seq data are reported as median RPKM (reads per kilobase per million mapped reads), generated by the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. More information can be found in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category GTEx GTEx RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on mRNA expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
RNA tissue category: Expressed in all
FANTOM5 dataset Tissue data obtained through Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) are reported as Tags Per Million, generated by the FANTOM5 project. More information can be found in Assays & Annotation.
RNA tissue category FANTOM5 FANTOM5 RNA tissue category (category description) is calculated based on gene expression levels across all tissues and include: tissue enriched, group enriched, tissue enhanced, expressed in all, mixed and not detected.
RNA tissue category: Expressed in all
Gene information from Ensembl and Entrez, as well as links to available gene identifiers are displayed here. Information was retrieved from Ensembl if not indicated otherwise.
JAK2 (HGNC Symbol)
Janus kinase 2 (HGNC Symbol)
Entrez gene summary
This gene product is a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a specific subset of cytokine receptor signaling pathways. It has been found to be constituitively associated with the prolactin receptor and is required for responses to gamma interferon. Mice that do not express an active protein for this gene exhibit embryonic lethality associated with the absence of definitive erythropoiesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
The protein browser displays the antigen location on the target protein(s) and the features of the target protein. The tabs at the top of the protein view section can be used to switch between the different splice variants to which an antigen has been mapped.
At the top of the view, the position of the antigen (identified by the corresponding HPA identifier) is shown as a green bar. A yellow triangle on the bar indicates a <100% sequence identity to the protein target.
Under the antigens, the maximum percent sequence identity of the protein to all other proteins from other human genes is displayed, using a sliding window of 10 aa residues (HsID 10) or 50 aa residues (HsID 50) (read more).
If a signal peptide is predicted by a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius (turquoise) and/or transmembrane regions (orange) are predicted by MDM, these are displayed.
Low complexity regions are shown in yellow and InterPro regions in green. Common (purple) and unique (grey) regions between different splice variants of the gene are also displayed (read more), and at the bottom of the protein view is the protein scale.
The protein information section displays alternative protein-coding transcripts (splice variants) encoded by this gene according to the Ensembl database.
The ENSP identifier links to the Ensembl website protein summary, while the ENST identifier links to the Ensembl website transcript summary for the selected splice variant. The data in the UniProt column can be expanded to show links to all matching UniProt identifiers for this protein.
The protein classes assigned to this protein are shown if expanding the data in the protein class column. Parent protein classes are in bold font and subclasses are listed under the parent class.
The Gene Ontology terms assigned to this protein are listed if expanding the Gene ontology column. The length of the protein (amino acid residues according to Ensembl), molecular mass (kDalton), predicted signal peptide (according to a majority of the signal peptide predictors SPOCTOPUS, SignalP 4.0, and Phobius) and the number of predicted transmembrane region(s) (according to MDM) are also reported.
Enzymes ENZYME proteins Transferases Kinases Tyr protein kinases SPOCTOPUS predicted secreted proteins Predicted intracellular proteins Plasma proteins Cancer-related genes Mutational cancer driver genes COSMIC somatic mutations in cancer genes COSMIC Somatic Mutations COSMIC Other Mutations COSMIC Missense Mutations COSMIC Translocations Disease related genes FDA approved drug targets Small molecule drugs Protein evidence (Kim et al 2014) Protein evidence (Ezkurdia et al 2014)
GO:0000165 [MAPK cascade] GO:0000186 [activation of MAPKK activity] GO:0002250 [adaptive immune response] GO:0004672 [protein kinase activity] GO:0004713 [protein tyrosine kinase activity] GO:0004715 [non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity] GO:0005102 [receptor binding] GO:0005131 [growth hormone receptor binding] GO:0005143 [interleukin-12 receptor binding] GO:0005515 [protein binding] GO:0005524 [ATP binding] GO:0005634 [nucleus] GO:0005654 [nucleoplasm] GO:0005737 [cytoplasm] GO:0005829 [cytosol] GO:0005856 [cytoskeleton] GO:0005901 [caveola] GO:0006325 [chromatin organization] GO:0006468 [protein phosphorylation] GO:0006915 [apoptotic process] GO:0006919 [activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process] GO:0006928 [movement of cell or subcellular component] GO:0006979 [response to oxidative stress] GO:0007165 [signal transduction] GO:0007167 [enzyme linked receptor protein signaling pathway] GO:0007173 [epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway] GO:0007186 [G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway] GO:0007204 [positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration] GO:0007259 [JAK-STAT cascade] GO:0007260 [tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein] GO:0007262 [STAT protein import into nucleus] GO:0007264 [small GTPase mediated signal transduction] GO:0007265 [Ras protein signal transduction] GO:0007411 [axon guidance] GO:0007498 [mesoderm development] GO:0007596 [blood coagulation] GO:0008022 [protein C-terminus binding] GO:0008284 [positive regulation of cell proliferation] GO:0008285 [negative regulation of cell proliferation] GO:0008286 [insulin receptor signaling pathway] GO:0008543 [fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway] GO:0008631 [intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to oxidative stress] GO:0009755 [hormone-mediated signaling pathway] GO:0010667 [negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process] GO:0010811 [positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion] GO:0014068 [positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling] GO:0016020 [membrane] GO:0016363 [nuclear matrix] GO:0016477 [cell migration] GO:0018108 [peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation] GO:0019221 [cytokine-mediated signaling pathway] GO:0019901 [protein kinase binding] GO:0020037 [heme binding] GO:0022408 [negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion] GO:0030041 [actin filament polymerization] GO:0030099 [myeloid cell differentiation] GO:0030154 [cell differentiation] GO:0030218 [erythrocyte differentiation] GO:0030335 [positive regulation of cell migration] GO:0031103 [axon regeneration] GO:0031234 [extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane] GO:0031702 [type 1 angiotensin receptor binding] GO:0031904 [endosome lumen] GO:0031959 [mineralocorticoid receptor signaling pathway] GO:0032024 [positive regulation of insulin secretion] GO:0032496 [response to lipopolysaccharide] GO:0032516 [positive regulation of phosphoprotein phosphatase activity] GO:0032731 [positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production] GO:0032760 [positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production] GO:0033130 [acetylcholine receptor binding] GO:0033160 [positive regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation] GO:0033194 [response to hydroperoxide] GO:0033209 [tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway] GO:0034050 [host programmed cell death induced by symbiont] GO:0034612 [response to tumor necrosis factor] GO:0035401 [histone kinase activity (H3-Y41 specific)] GO:0035409 [histone H3-Y41 phosphorylation] GO:0035556 [intracellular signal transduction] GO:0035722 [interleukin-12-mediated signaling pathway] GO:0036016 [cellular response to interleukin-3] GO:0038083 [peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation] GO:0038095 [Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway] GO:0042127 [regulation of cell proliferation] GO:0042169 [SH2 domain binding] GO:0042393 [histone binding] GO:0042503 [tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 protein] GO:0042506 [tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein] GO:0042508 [tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat1 protein] GO:0042517 [positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 protein] GO:0042523 [positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 protein] GO:0042977 [activation of JAK2 kinase activity] GO:0042981 [regulation of apoptotic process] GO:0043065 [positive regulation of apoptotic process] GO:0043066 [negative regulation of apoptotic process] GO:0043388 [positive regulation of DNA binding] GO:0043392 [negative regulation of DNA binding] GO:0043524 [negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process] GO:0043548 [phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding] GO:0043560 [insulin receptor substrate binding] GO:0045087 [innate immune response] GO:0045121 [membrane raft] GO:0045429 [positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process] GO:0045597 [positive regulation of cell differentiation] GO:0045822 [negative regulation of heart contraction] GO:0045944 [positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter] GO:0046677 [response to antibiotic] GO:0046777 [protein autophosphorylation] GO:0048008 [platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway] GO:0048010 [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway] GO:0048011 [neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway] GO:0050727 [regulation of inflammatory response] GO:0050729 [positive regulation of inflammatory response] GO:0050731 [positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation] GO:0050867 [positive regulation of cell activation] GO:0051091 [positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity] GO:0051428 [peptide hormone receptor binding] GO:0051770 [positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process] GO:0060333 [interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway] GO:0060334 [regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway] GO:0060396 [growth hormone receptor signaling pathway] GO:0060397 [JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway] GO:0060399 [positive regulation of growth hormone receptor signaling pathway] GO:0061180 [mammary gland epithelium development] GO:0070671 [response to interleukin-12] GO:0071222 [cellular response to lipopolysaccharide] GO:0071549 [cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus] GO:0097191 [extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:0097296 [activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway] GO:2001235 [positive regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway]