The human protein atlas blog


Crystallins are proteins expressed in the human eye with a long life

2017-07-22
Eye Image of the week Immunocytochemistry Immunohistochemistry Lens proteins Pathology tissue Tissue Atlas

The beta-crystallin B2 protein, encoded by the CRYBB2 gene, is a very important structural component of the human eye lens. Immunohistochemical staining of CRYBB2 protein shows specific expression in the lens.

Previously we have highlighted proteins expressed in the human neural retina. This week's article emphasizes the cellular structure and molecular dynamics of the lens.

The main function of the lens is to focus light on the retina. The passage of light through the cornea, lens and vitreous all the way to the retinal layer of the eye is only possible due to transparency of the tissue. Although the lens is very protein-rich, light absorption and light scattering in the lens is minimal.

The lens comprises non-diving lens cells which are mainly composed of ordered proteins called crystallins...Read more


TPX2 is a key component in the formation of the mitotic spindle

2017-07-08
Cancer Cell Atlas Cell cycle cells Image of the week Immunofluorescence microscopycancer Kinetochore

Mitotic spindle with TPX2 expression (green)

TPX2 was identified in 1997 as a 100 kDa nuclear protein. In cells TPX2, a is a microtubule nucleation factor that translocates from the nucleus - where it resides during interphase - to the mitotic spindle during mitosis.

The mitotic spindle forms when chromosomes are ready to segregate during cell division and not surprisingly this protein is also found in this specific compartment of the cell! TPX2 is required for the correct formation of the kinetochores that is crucial for the attachment of microtubules, enabling the sister chromatids to be pulled apart. Due to its function TPX2 expression is cell-cycle dependent...Read more


Pituitary gland links the nervous and the endocrine systems in the human body

2017-05-05
Brain Image of the week Immunohistochemistry Pituitary gland tissue Tissue Atlas

The pituitary gland plays a crucial role in human physiology, and together with the hypothalamus this highly conserved and elegant system form a link between the nervous and endocrine system, by controlling the functions of the thyroid, adrenal glands, and the gonads, and also regulating growth, lactation, and water preservation.

This gland, also called hypophysis, consists of two separate lobes with dual embryonic origin; the anterior (adeno) pituitary gland originates from the oral cavity, and the posterior (neural) pituitary gland develops from the neural plate...Read more


TACO1 an ubiquitous protein governing expression of the mitochondrial genome

2017-04-21
Cell Atlas cells Image of the week Immunofluorescence microscopy Mitochondria Mitochondrial disorders

Antibody HPA021643 in U-2 OS recognizing TACO1 in mitochondria.

Mitochondria harbors an own genome that renders key proteins involved in production of energy through oxidation of various substrates. Majority of the disorders associated with mitochondrial function are caused by impaired expression of the proteins encoded in the mitochondrial genome. One of these proteins is the translational activator of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (TACO1).

Experimental results reveal that TACO1 is expressed in all tissues within the human body. The protein is detected mainly in the cytoplasm and more precise inside mitochondria. Explore expression and subcellular localization of TACO1 in the Cell Atlas...Read more


CD44 as a marker of renal cancer

2017-03-31
Cancer Image of the week Immunohistochemistry Pathology Atlas Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal cell cancer is a relatively common form of human cancer. Tumors develop in the kidney and have a tendency to grow into renal veins and metastasize to distant organs without the spread to regional lymph nodes as is common for many other tumor types.

This particular case shows a papillary form of renal cell cancer that grows with papillary excrescences into cyst formations and with areas of necrosis. The tumor has been stained with an antibody (HPA005785) that recognizes the CD44 protein.

CD44 is a cell-surface glycoprotein and a receptor for hyaluronic acid that is involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration...Read more


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